Spending money on penetration tests is an investment. And as a sizable investment in your product, you’ll want to ensure you are getting your money’s worth. However, there are a number of common pitfalls that can cost you in terms of quality, project delays, or unnecessary expense.
So whether you have conducted many pen tests or are about to engage in your first, this list contains helpful guidance for companies at every stage of security program maturity.
1. CONDUCT YOUR OWN PRE-ASSESSMENT
If you have the staff, consider performing your own in-house assessment prior to contracting a pen test or opening a bug bounty program. This will help eliminate the low-hanging fruit (i.e., bugs that are easily detected with automation and scanning).
This can be especially important with bug bounty programs because having to pay out for a large number of easy-to-find bugs could cost more money in bounties than the allocation of a full-time resource.
Eradicating these vulnerabilities in advance will allow you to rely on the professionals for the harder-to-find bugs.
2. KNOW YOUR ASSESSMENT’S GOALS
Determine specific goals and trophy targets. As with any project, clearly stating goals for the assessment ahead of time helps keep everyone on track and allows the team to prioritize vulnerabilities surrounding your greatest concerns.
For example, if you are a product company, the primary goal for the assessment team might be unauthorized access to schematics/design documents, unreleased marketing material, or any other information that could be at risk for corporate espionage. While the team will still test other functionality and produce any other findings encountered, a primary goal will provide a clear focus for the penetration test.
3. AIM FOR ACCURATE SCOPING SURVEYS
It is important to describe the size and scope of the application as accurately as possible. Scoping teams will often provide a survey for your team to fill out to describe various aspects of the target(s) being assessed. It may take a little more time upfront, but it will also ensure that the project’s assigned hours are accurate as well, thereby setting the project up for success from the start.
For example, when determining the line of code (LoC) count for a source code review, be sure to remove test cases from repos before running automated tooling. Let’s say you’re running a tool like cloc to provide a source code estimate. Although it will automatically subtract comments and blank lines, which is helpful, it can’t distinguish between test cases and product source code cases. This could mean that a result of 400k LoC could include 100k LoC of test cases, overestimating the source code count by 25%.
Similarly, if you have a web application and you guess that it has 50 endpoints when it in fact has 100, then the test will be under-scoped. Under-scoping may require a last-minute change order which could mean more hours, cause budget issues, project delays, or interference with other deadlines. Going ahead without a change order means you will end up with a more limited test than planned.
Conservatively overestimating (or over-scoping) runs fewer risks because your pen test team can always dig deeper into any application or reallocate the hours for a different testing activity. Reporting an accurate (or even slightly overestimated) scope is the first step to ensuring project success.
4. CONSIDER A MULTI-TIERED ASSESSMENT
While it’s common to test the outward-facing portion of your application, a multi-tiered assessment can help ensure strong detection and defense mechanisms after various levels of compromise and will lead to more robust application security. This form of assessment provides the assessment team with authenticated access to various levels of the underlying architecture directly, as opposed to requiring a code execution to be discovered.
For example, in a multi-tiered web application assessment, the team might assess the application as various user roles (as you would find in a standard assessment), but then they would also simulate the compromise of Customer Service users, an application server, or a back-end server. These roles could be set up as the following:
- No access/public sign-in
- Application user roles (e.g., users, organization users, and administrators)
- Customer support user
- Command-line access to a primary web service
- Command-line access to a secondary back-end service
Attempting attacks from these privileged spaces allows the network monitoring team to become familiar with what malicious behavior looks like, and it allows security at the server level to be evaluated. For most organizations, security at this level is not formally evaluated until a break-in occurs or until privileged access is obtained during a pen test.
The approach is similar for a red teaming engagement attempting to gain access to privileged corporate information. The first goal might be to gain access to the internal network from the outside. Once inside, attackers typically attempt to escalate privileges by getting access to more privileged users. Other times, they successfully phish a high-privileged user. With a multi-tiered assessment, the team can attempt compromise from a variety of different network positions and roles, such as:
- No access
- VPN access
- Standard employee access to internal applications
- Access to a particular employee group
- Physical access to offices
- Developer access
5. DISABLE YOUR WAF DURING TESTING
Why should you disable your web application firewall (WAF) during a security test after spending all that money on it? It’s the same reason a patient helps a doctor by pulling up their sleeve when looking for chicken pox.
Disabling the WAF is the fastest and most time-effective way to diagnose issues in the underlying application. If you disable the WAF, it allows the team to focus on identifying flaws in your application, instead of flaws in third-party appliances. Don’t give the WAF a free pen test.
So how does a WAF hamper testing?
- Instead of conducting hundreds or thousands of tests per second, we get logged out of the application with every test case. Creating automation to work around this limitation may take some time, and once it’s created, we can likely do only one to two test cases per second.
- To ensure good coverage, we must manually craft or vet every payload to ensure its efficacy when it’s passed through a given WAF.
- Additional application latency is an issue due to proxying through the WAF.
That said, if you’re concerned about the efficacy of a WAF in relation to your application, coordinate with the team to re-enable the WAF toward the end of the assessment. That way, we can look for specific bypasses to determine when the WAF may be effective in stopping an attack.
Alternatively, consider having two test environments: one with defense-in-depth controls (e.g., a WAF) and one without. This allows the team to discover application vulnerabilities without spending excess time bypassing filters. In our experience, WAFs slow down attacks more than they prevent them.
6. DISABLE RISK-BASED SESSION EXPIRATION
Disable application features that may interfere with testing, such as session expiration associated with malicious payloads. While this feature may slow down attackers in production, it will also slow down your pen testers and limit the number of tests performed per billable hour.
7. ENSURE A STABLE, RESPONSIVE TEST ENVIRONMENT
For the most effective pen test, ensure that the test environment is just as responsive, complete, and stable as the production environment.
To ensure stability, don’t alter the test environment during a pen test. If the environment is altered, it can result in missed findings due to downtime or false positives from in-progress bug fixes.
In worst-case scenarios, we’ve seen test environments with five to ten seconds of latency per request. We’ve also had pen tests conducted through screen control on WebEx. If a product has egress to WebEx servers, there are better solutions for a testing environment.
8. FILL THE TEST ENVIRONMENT WITH DATA
Do not provide an empty test environment. Fill it with test data to allow consultants to demonstrate authorization bypasses, such as gaining access to another user’s files. Without this data, it will be more challenging to validate findings, and the final report may lack strong examples of business impact.
Some customers mirror production data to the test environment, while others fill it with QA data. If you like, you can add specific trophy files or data to the environment for us to focus on obtaining.
9. ENSURE DEV TEAM AVAILABILITY DURING THE TEST
Lack of product team availability is a commonly overlooked risk to successful projects. Pen tests often involve discussions with development or security team members to strategize solutions. When these team members aren’t available, project delays can occur, and the assessment team can be limited in providing tailored remediation recommendations.
As a result, before scheduling a pen test, confirm that your development, security, and any other essential team members have availability on their calendar and are not out of the office.
10. CONFIRM ON-TIME PRE-ENGAGEMENTS
Consulting firms will provide a list of access requirements that are necessary to test the application. To avoid wasting time, deliver pre-engagement requirements on time. Feel free to reach out to your consulting team and ask them to confirm access in advance to ensure an on-time start.
For instance, access requirements might entail provisioning multiple user roles for an application. However, there are multiple ways access might be incomplete. Perhaps the accounts were provisioned, but they were linked to an employee email account instead of a tester’s email account. Or maybe the accounts were added, but the team can’t test the application because the test environment gateway needs to whitelist the team’s IP addresses. All of these issues can lead to delays or slow down a test, taking away valuable testing hours from a project. So, it’s always good to confirm access prior to the start of testing.
11. TRY TO ALWAYS PROVIDE SOURCE CODE
Source code is always better than no source code. Even if you are purchasing a black-box pen test, providing source code allows the team to track down issues faster and identify more vulnerabilities. No pen tester will reject provided source code.
12. TEST THE SECURITY NOT THE OBSCURITY
If your application relies on any obfuscation or anti-debugging, disable that obfuscation during the test, unless you want to focus on testing the efficacy of the obfuscation instead.
These tactics are typically used to slow down an attacker, which, while valuable in an attack scenario, may incur an unnecessary cost when assessing your application’s security.
13. PROVIDE TEST SUITES AND DEV TOOLS
The more information you can share, the better. In addition to source code, provide any QA/dev tools (e.g., Postman collections, custom dev tools, and test data) that might allow the assessment team to more effectively interact with, compile, or test your application. This will also reduce the amount of time the consultants need to construct preliminary test cases.
14. PROVIDE DEV AND CUSTOMER DOCUMENTATION
Provide any developer and customer-facing documentation or diagrams. Similar to onboarding a new developer, it reduces the time the consulting team requires to gain a baseline understanding of the application’s architecture.
15. ASSIGN A RESOURCE TO RESOLVE BLOCKERS
Remember, like lawyers, consulting firms use billable hours. Make the best use of the time you’re paying for by assigning a resource from your team to resolve any blockers that might emerge, which will allow the assessment team to solve problems faster.
While some clients choose to provide consulting teams with an email distribution list to resolve any issues, an assigned project manager can ensure a quick turnaround and use internal escalation paths to expedite resolutions, which is much more effective. For example, if the assessment team is missing credentials, a delayed response could significantly affect the team’s ability to test. For this reason, consider assigning a specific resource to unblock your consulting team and ensure information or access requests are fulfilled in a timely manner.
16. MAINTAIN OPEN COMMUNICATION WITH THE TESTERS
Consider creating a Slack channel (or any other instant messaging platform) with your development team where the assessment team can ask questions or request information. You might also add a project manager to ensure your team is responding within a few hours.
17. ESTABLISH AN ESCALATION PLAN FOR HIGH-RISK FINDINGS
Have a plan in place for handling critical and high-risk vulnerabilities. At Bishop Fox, critical-risk findings will always be communicated to your team within 24 hours of discovery.
Ensure the relevant development teams are aware of this possibility so they can be prepared to triage any high-risk bugs as they are reported. Keeping everyone in the loop and having your various teams prepared to push a new a release will ensure a smooth remediation.
18. SCHEDULE TESTS DURING THE SUMMER
Insider tip: Schedule pen tests in the summer.
Most companies try to quickly spend their remaining budgets at the end of the year. As a result, consulting firms are at their busiest that time of year, so you might not get your pen test on the calendar. Instead, test in the summer, which will afford you more testing flexibility, more diverse availability of resources, and more opportunities to extend timelines or schedule follow-up assessments.
19. USE PEN TESTERS FOR PEN TESTING
Consultants that specialize in offensive security may be great at finding vulnerabilities in your application, but they may not be equipped to conduct other activities such as secure development training.
To ensure a successful assessment, focus the consultant on the items described in the statement of work. Education may be something a consulting firm can offer, but it will need to be taken into account during the initial scope; otherwise, it can become a project risk (e.g., projects delays due to staffing changes or additional costs).
20. DON'T FORGET TO ASK QUESTIONS DURING THE REPORT WALK-THROUGH
Make the most of your report walk-through. Here are some questions that may be helpful to ask your testing team:
- After we remediate these findings, how will you feel about the security of this application?
- Did you feel like you got a thorough view of the application? If not, what would you have wanted to test further? What should we focus on for our next pen test?
- What functionality or feature concerns you the most?
- Are there any strategic design changes that you would recommend?
- How can we have our QA team test for issues like ____ to avoid them in the future?
- Are there any automated tools that we should consider adding to our CI/CD pipeline?
- We are considering migrating to the ____ service/platform/framework. What things should we consider during this migration?
- I noticed there weren't many (or any) findings on the ____ feature. What were your observations during testing?
- Did you have any blockers or delays from our end during testing? If so, what can we do to reduce those in the future?
- How can I stay up to date on security risks for ____? Are there any projects, newsletters, or news sources that my team should consider monitoring?
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